In regulating blood glucose it is important to take into account that insulin is not the only hormone that regulates the blood sugar level (ie the concentration of sugar in the blood). Other hormones, called hyperglycemic or counterinsular hormones, counteract its effect:
- growth hormone (GH)
- cortisol (or other corticosteroids given for therapeutic purposes)
It is therefore no coincidence that in conditions of severe stress - such as during an "acute infection or severe physical trauma (increased cortisol and catecholamines) - the diabetic is forced to increase the therapeutic dose of insulin. it is also surprising that acromegaly (GH hypersecretion during adulthood) is often accompanied by hyperglycemia, as is pregnancy (increased estrogen and progesterone).