Causes Dark Circles: Why Do They Appear?
Excessive pigmentation of the area under the eyes
Excessive pigmentation is a frequent cause of the appearance of dark circles, sometimes related to skin melanocytosis: the blemish appears as a slight dark curvature under the eye and is even more evident when there is a swelling under the lower eyelid of the eye. "eye.
Cutaneous melanocytosis is due to both genetic and environmental factors, including the numerous benign lesions resulting from hyperpigmentation, characterized by the presence of melanocytes in the dermis: sometimes these lesions are already present at birth. From a clinical point of view, the dermal melanocytes they are gray-blue, precisely because they represent the consequence of the transmission of the black pigment through the dermis: if they were located in the periorbital area, they could be the cause that leads to the formation of dark circles.
Hemostasis and excessive vascularization
Advancing age and persistent fatigue, reinforced by stress, cause a blockage of the blood circulation in the infraorbital region, so the typical blue-gray color of dark circles increases under the eyes. Often the skin of the lower eyelid, above the orbital muscle, has a layer of fat so thin that it is sometimes non-existent: thus, the dark shadow of the dark circles could be due to the visible prominence of the underlying vascular plexus. This condition often involves the entire subocular area and appears, in fact, as a purplish spot with evident blood vessels, covered only by a very thin layer of skin.
It has also been seen that this imperfection is more evident in the internal parts and is more noticeable in the woman's menstrual period.
If you want to test the severity of the dark circles you simply need to spread the skin under the eye with your finger: obviously the typically dark spot gets bigger, widening, and you can see that there are no more light parts, but the purplish color persists. technique can be considered a useful diagnostic test to highlight the degree of vascularization of the part itself.
Aging and UV exposure
None of us can escape the signs of age: in fact, over time, collagen and elastin, present in the thin layer of skin of the lower eyelid, undergo chemical-physical changes with the consequent degradation of the protein structure of the same; these alterations appear in following exposure to UV radiation and the natural degenerative process of the skin.
Collagenases are enzymes that degrade collagen: in the physiological process of skin aging the action of these enzymes is enhanced, an activity also favored by ultraviolet rays. The area primarily affected by the phenomenon of photoaging is, without a doubt, the eye contour: the laxity of the skin due to photo-aging in fact gives a sort of shadow in the lower eyelid which translates into dark circles.
Secondary post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation
The phenomenon of post-inflammatory secondary hyperpigmentation is caused by atopic dermatitis (a chronic, erythematous, persistently itchy dermatitis, characterized by eczematous and dry skin) and is sometimes also caused by contact allergy (the skin becomes itchy, erythematous and with small blisters which often desquamano, ie eczema). When the dermatitis persists for a long time it tends to become chronic and a reduction of the erythema is observed, the skin appears dry and with small fissures.
Dark circles, in fact, prevail in allergic individuals, as they continue to scratch and rub the area around the eyes, which in itself is sensitive. In doing so, the liquid under the eyes also accumulates, caused by the allergy itself: therefore the allergies that generate edema contribute to the darkening of the periocular area.
The subocular region could be compared to a sponge that helps the accumulation of fluid in cases of local or systemic edema. The swelling that occurs under the eyes, a phenomenon very evident in elderly women, is generally caused by edema, but as we have already seen, it can also be accentuated by allergies and by an "excessive capillary permeability, which would lead to poor blood vascularization.
Skin laxity: thinning of the skin in the periorbital area and dehydration
Thinning of the skin around the eyes and excessive vascularization make the subcutaneous blood vessels more noticeable and visible.
The dermis thins because the number and activity of fibroblasts that produce collagen, glycosaminoglycans, elastic fibers, reticular fibers and glycoproteins decrease.
Dehydration is another factor that should not be underestimated, as it is considered another cause that contributes to the formation of dark circles and wrinkles: in fact, up to 25 years of age the skin is more relaxed and softer thanks to particular mechanisms which allow to retain water.
The skin is characterized by a family of lipids, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which together with proteoglycans bind water molecules ensuring deep hydration. As we age, however, those water retention mechanisms begin to fail and the inevitable consequence is just an "excessive loss of" general water, which is even more noticeable in the face.
With aging, then, the activity of the skin glands decreases, so the skin produces less sebum and appears more desquamated and less protected.
Depression caused by the tear of the valley
The depression created by the teardrop is also an important characteristic of the aging phenomenon: it is characterized not only by the thinning of the skin in the periorbital area, but also by a loss of subcutaneous fat combined with the "descent" of the eyelid .
The tear of the valley is a depression centered over the lower edge of the eye: obviously this phenomenon is more evident in old age, due to the fact that the prolapse of orbital fat and thin skin highlight the dark circle even more.
To learn more: Massagers for better eyes against bags and dark circles ;