Coripren - Package Leaflet
Active ingredients: Enalapril, Lercanidipine
Coripren 10 mg / 10 mg film-coated tabletsCoripren package inserts are available for pack sizes:
- Coripren 10 mg / 10 mg film-coated tablets
- Coripren 20 mg / 10 mg film-coated tablets
Indications Why is Coripren used? What is it for?
Coripren is a fixed combination of an ACE inhibitor (enalapril maleate) and a calcium channel blocker (lercanidipine hydrochloride), two drugs that lower blood pressure.
Coripren is used for the treatment of high blood pressure (hypertension) in adult patients whose blood pressure has not been adequately controlled with 10 mg of lercanidipine alone. Coripren is not indicated for the initial treatment of hypertension.
Contraindications When Coripren should not be used
Do not take Coripren:
- If you are allergic to enalapril or lercanidipine or any of the other ingredients of this medicine (listed in section 6).
- If you have ever had an allergic reaction to a type of medicine similar to those contained in Coripren, eg. medicines called ACE inhibitors or calcium channel blockers.
- If you have ever had swelling of the face, lips, mouth, tongue or throat which caused difficulty in swallowing or breathing (angioedema) after taking a type of medicine called an ACE inhibitor, or if no cause known or for hereditary cause (idiopathic or hereditary angioedema).
- If you have diabetes or impaired kidney function and you are being treated with a blood pressure lowering medicine containing aliskiren
- If you are past the third month of pregnancy. (It is also best to avoid Coripren in early pregnancy - see pregnancy section).
- If you suffer from certain heart conditions such as:
- obstruction of blood flow from the heart, including narrowing of the aortic valve of the heart (aortic stenosis)
- untreated congestive heart failure.
- chest pain that appears at rest or that gets progressively worse or occurs more often (unstable angina).
- heart attack less than a month old.
- If you have severe kidney problems, or if you are on dialysis.
- If you have severe liver problems.
- If you take drugs that inhibit liver metabolism such as:
- antifungals (e.g. ketoconazole, itraconazole).
- macrolide antibiotics (e.g. erythromycin, troleandomycin).
- antivirals (e.g. ritonavir).
- If you are taking another medicine called cyclosporine at the same time (used after transplants to prevent organ rejection).
- Along with grapefruit or grapefruit juice.
Precautions for use What you need to know before taking Coripren
Talk to your doctor or pharmacist before taking Coripren:
- if you have low blood pressure (it will cause weakness or dizziness, especially when standing up).
- If you have had excessive vomiting or have recently had diarrhea.
- If you are on a low-sodium diet.
- If you have heart problems.
- If you have a disease affecting the blood vessels of the brain.
- If you have kidney problems (including kidney transplant).
- If you have liver problems.
- If you have blood problems, such as reduced or lack of white blood cells (leukopenia, agranulocytosis), reduced number of platelets (thrombocytopenia) or reduced number of red blood cells (anemia).
- If you have diseases called vascular collagenopathies (e.g. lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis or scleroderma), you are on therapy that suppresses the immune system, you are taking medicines such as allopurinol or procainamide or a combination thereof.
- If you are a black patient you should be aware that black patients have a higher risk of an allergic reaction with swelling of the face, lips, tongue and throat with difficulty in swallowing and breathing while taking ACE inhibitors. .
- If you have diabetes.
- If a persistent dry cough appears.
- If you are taking potassium supplements, potassium-sparing agents or potassium-containing salt substitutes.
- If you are intolerant to certain sugars (lactose).
- If you are taking any of the following medicines used to treat high blood pressure:
- an 'angiotensin II' receptor antagonist (AIIRA) (also known as sartans - eg valsartan, telmisartan, irbesartan), particularly if you have diabetes-related kidney problems.
Your doctor may check your kidney function, blood pressure, and the amount of electrolytes (such as potassium) in your blood at regular intervals. See also information under the heading "Do not take Coripren"
Tell your doctor if you are about to have treatment
Tell your doctor that you are taking Coripren if you are going to:
- undergo surgery or anesthesia (including dental anesthesia)
- follow a treatment to remove cholesterol from the blood called "LDL apheresis"
- follow desensitization therapy to reduce the effect of allergies to bee or wasp stings. The use of Coripren during dialysis or while undergoing treatment for very high blood lipid levels can cause severe hypersensitivity reactions and even shock deadly. See also information under "Do not take Coripren".
Tell your doctor that you are being treated with Coripren or if you are required to have dialysis, so that your doctor can take this into account when prescribing treatment.
Tell your doctor right away if you develop any of the following signs or symptoms:
- Swelling of the face, limbs, lips, mucous membranes, tongue, and / or throat, or shortness of breath.
- Yellow discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes.
- Fever, swollen lymph glands
See also information under "Do not take Coripren"
Tell your doctor if you think you are (or may become) pregnant or are breast-feeding (see section "Pregnancy, breast-feeding and fertility")
Children and adolescents
Do not give this medicine to children and adolescents under the age of 18 because there is no information on efficacy and safety.
Interactions Which drugs or foods may change the effect of Coripren
Coripren must not be taken together with some medicines. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking, have recently taken or might take any other medicines. This is because when Coripren is taken together with some medicines, its effect or that of other medicines may change, or some side effects may occur more frequently.
In particular, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking any of the following medicines:
- drugs containing potassium (including salt substitutes in diets)
- other medicines used to lower blood pressure, such as diuretics (drugs that increase urine output)
- lithium (a drug used to treat a certain type of depression)
- medicines for depression called "tricyclic antidepressants"
- medicines for mental problems called "antipsychotics"
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including COX-2 inhibitors (drugs that reduce inflammation and can be used to help relieve pain)
- some pain or arthritis medications including gold therapy
- some cough and cold medications and weight loss medications containing a substance called a "sympathomimetic agent"
- diabetes medications (including oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin)
- astemizole or terfenadine (allergy medications)
- amiodarone or quinidine (medicines to treat a fast heartbeat)
- phenytoin or carbamazepine (drugs for epilepsy)
- rifampicin (a drug to treat tuberculosis)
- digoxin (a medicine to treat heart problems)
- midazolam (a medicine that helps you sleep)
- beta-blockers (medicines to treat high blood pressure and heart problems)
- a medicine for ulcers and heartburn called cimetidine, taken in daily doses greater than 800 mg.
- a cholesterol-lowering drug called "simvastatin".
The reduction in blood pressure may be intensified if any of the following medicines are used together with Coripren:
- Ciclosporin (a medicine that suppresses the immune system).
- Oral antifungal drugs such as ketoconazole and itraconazole.
- Antiviral drugs such as ritonavir.
- Macrolide antibiotics, such as erythromycin or troleandomycin.
- Some vasodilator drugs such as nitroglycerin and organic nitrates (isosorbide) or anesthetics.
See also information in the section "Do not take Coripren".
Your doctor may need to change your dose and / or take other precautions:
If you are taking an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (AIIRA) or aliskiren (see also information under "Do not take Coripren" and "Warnings and precautions").
If you use potassium-sparing diuretics (spironolactone) or potassium supplements, the level of potassium in your blood may rise.
If you are using immunosuppressants (drugs that suppress the immune system) or anti-gout drugs, it is possible in very rare cases to be prone to severe infections.
Tell your doctor if you use antihistamines such as terfenadine or astemizole or antiarrhythmic agents such as amiodarone or quinidine, or gold, as some drug interactions with these medicines may occur (see sections "Do not take Coripren" and "Warnings and precautions").
Coripren with food, drink and alcohol
Take Coripren at least 15 minutes before a meal.
Drinking alcohol can increase the effects of Coripren, so it is recommended that you do not take alcohol or minimize its consumption.
Do not take Coripren with grapefruit or grapefruit juice.
Warnings It is important to know that:
Pregnancy, breastfeeding and fertility
Pregnancy and fertility
Tell your doctor if you think you are (or might get) pregnant. Your doctor will normally advise you to stop taking Coripren before becoming pregnant or as soon as you know you are pregnant and will advise you to take another medicine instead of Coripren.
Coripren is not recommended during pregnancy and should not be taken after the third month, as it may cause serious harm to your baby if used after the third month of pregnancy.
Tell your doctor if you are breastfeeding or about to start breastfeeding. Breastfeeding babies (in the first few weeks after birth), and especially premature babies, is not recommended if you are taking Coripren. In the case of an older child, your doctor should inform you about the benefits and risks of taking Coripren while breastfeeding, in comparison to other treatments.
Driving and using machines
Avoid driving a vehicle or operating machinery if you experience dizziness, weakness, tiredness or sleepiness while taking this medicine.
Coripren contains lactose
If you have been told by your doctor that you have an "intolerance to some sugars, contact your doctor before taking this medicinal product.
Dosage and method of use How to use Coripren: Dosage
Always take this medicine exactly as your doctor has told you. If in doubt, consult your doctor or pharmacist.
Adults: the recommended dose is one tablet a day, taken at the same time each day, unless otherwise prescribed by your doctor. The tablet should preferably be taken in the morning, at least 15 minutes before breakfast. The tablet should be swallowed whole with a little water.
Patients with kidney problems / the elderly: Your doctor will decide the dose of medicine to take based on how your kidneys are working.
If you forget to take Coripren
- If you forget to take your tablet, skip the missed dose.
- Take the next dose as usual.
- Do not take a double dose to make up for a forgotten dose.
If you stop taking Coripren
- Do not stop taking this medicine until your doctor tells you to.
- If you have any further questions on the use of this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Overdose What to do if you have taken too much Coripren
If you take more medicine than you should, consult your doctor or go to a hospital immediately. Take the box with you. Taking an excessive dose of the drug can cause an excessive drop in blood pressure and the appearance of irregular heart rhythms or tachycardia.
Side Effects What are the side effects of Coripren
Like all medicines, Coripren can cause side effects, although not everybody gets them.
The following side effects may occur with the use of this medicine:
Some side effects can be serious.
If any of the following occur, tell your doctor immediately:
- Allergic reaction with swelling of the face, lips, tongue or throat which may cause difficulty in swallowing or breathing.
You may feel weakness or dizziness or have blurred vision at the start of treatment with Coripren; this is caused by a sudden drop in blood pressure and if this happens it would help to lie down. If this causes you concern, contact your doctor.
Side effects seen with Coripren
Common (may affect up to 1 in 10 people)
Cough, feeling dizzy, headache.
Uncommon (may affect up to 1 in 100 people)
Changes in blood values such as a decrease in the number of blood platelets, an increase in the level of potassium in the blood, nervousness (anxiety), feeling dizzy on standing up, dizziness, rapid heartbeat, fast or irregular heartbeat (palpitations), sudden redness of the face, neck or upper chest (flushing), low blood pressure, abdominal pain, constipation, feeling sick (nausea), high liver enzyme levels, red skin, joint pain, increased frequency of "elimination of urine, feeling of weakness, tiredness, feeling of heat, swelling of the ankles.
Rare (may affect up to 1 in 1,000 people)
Anemia, allergic reactions, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), fainting, dry throat, sore throat, indigestion, salty tongue sensation, diarrhea, dry mouth, enlarged gums, allergic reaction with swelling of the face, lips, tongue or throat with difficulty in swallowing and breathing, rash, hives, wake up at night to urinate, high urine output, impotence.
Additional side effects with enalapril or lercanidipine taken separately
Very common (may affect more than 1 in 10 people)
Common (may affect up to 1 in 10 people)
Depression, chest pain, heart rhythm changes, angina, shortness of breath, taste disturbance, increased blood creatinine levels (usually seen in a test).
Uncommon (may affect up to 1 in 100 people)
Anemia (including aplastic and haemolytic anemia), sudden drop in blood pressure, confusion, insomnia or sleepiness, tingling or numbness in the skin, heart attack (possibly due to very low blood pressure in some high-risk patients, including those with problems with blood flow to the heart or brain), stroke (possibly due to very low blood pressure in high-risk patients), runny nose, sore throat and hoarseness, asthma, impaired bowel motility, inflammation of the pancreas, malaise, upset stomach (gastric irritation), ulcer, anorexia, increased sweating, itching or hives, hair loss, impaired kidney function, kidney failure, high level of protein in the urine (measured in a test), muscle cramps, general feeling of unwell (malaise), high temperature (fever), low blood sugar or sodium, high blood urea (t all found in a blood test).
Rare (may affect up to 1 in 1,000 people)
Abnormal laboratory values such as reduced white blood cell count, decreased bone marrow function, autoimmune disease, altered dreams or sleep disturbances, Raynaud's phenomenon (where hands and feet can become very cold and white due to reduced blood flow blood), lung infiltrates, inflammation of the nose, pneumonia, liver problems such as decreased liver function, inflammation of the liver, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and / or whites of the eyes), increased bilirubin levels (measured with a blood test), erythema multiforme (red patches of different shapes on the skin), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (a serious skin condition where redness and peeling of the skin, blisters or sores, or peeling of the upper layer of the skin ), decreased urine output, enlargement of the mammary gland in humans.
Very rare (may affect up to 1 in 10,000 people)
Swelling of the intestine (intestinal angioedema).
Not known (frequency cannot be estimated from the available data)
SIADH (Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion, antidiuretic hormone)
Rare (may affect up to 1 in 1,000 people)
Angina pectoris (chest pain caused by insufficient blood supply to the heart), vomiting, heartburn, muscle pain.
Very rare (may affect up to 1 in 10,000 people)
Patients with pre-existing angina pectoris may experience increased frequency, duration or severity of attacks with the drug group to which lercanidipine belongs. Isolated cases of heart attack can be observed.
If any of the side effects gets serious, or if you notice any side effects not listed in this leaflet, please tell your doctor or pharmacist. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist for more information on side effects. They both have a more complete list of side effects.
Reporting of side effects
If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet. You can also report side effects directly via the national reporting system at www.agenziafarmaco.gov.it/it/responsabili. By reporting side effects you can help provide more information on the safety of this medicine.
Expiry and Retention
Keep this medicine out of the sight and reach of children.
Do not use this medicine after the expiry date which is stated on the blister and carton after the word EXP. The expiry date refers to the last day of that month.
Store in the original package to protect from light and moisture. Do not store above 25 ° C.
Do not throw any medicines via wastewater or household waste. Ask your pharmacist how to throw away medicines you no longer use. This will help protect the environment.
Deadline "> Other information
What Coripren contains
The active ingredients are enalapril maleate and lercanidipine hydrochloride.
Each film-coated tablet contains: 10 mg of enalapril maleate (equivalent to 7.64 mg of enalapril) and 10 mg of lercanidipine hydrochloride (equivalent to 9.44 mg of lercanidipine).
The other ingredients are:
- Core: lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl starch type A, povidone K 30, sodium hydrogen carbonate, magnesium stearate.
- Film coating: 5 cP hypromellose, titanium dioxide (E171), talc, macrogol 6000.
What Coripren looks like and contents of the pack
Coripren 10 mg / 10 mg are 8.5mm white, circular and biconvex film-coated tablets.
Coripren 10 mg / 10 mg is available in packs of 7, 14, 28, 30, 35, 42, 50, 56, 90, 98 and 100 tablets.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
Source Package Leaflet: AIFA (Italian Medicines Agency). Content published in January 2016. The information present may not be up-to-date.
To have access to the most up-to-date version, it is advisable to access the AIFA (Italian Medicines Agency) website. Disclaimer and useful information.
01.0 NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT -
CORIPREN 10 MG / 10 MG TABLETS COATED WITH FILM
02.0 QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION -
Each film-coated tablet contains 10 mg of enalapril maleate (equivalent to 7.64 mg of enalapril) and 10 mg of lercanidipine hydrochloride (equivalent to 9.44 mg of lercanidipine).
Excipient with known effect: one tablet contains 102.0 mg of lactose monohydrate.
For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
03.0 PHARMACEUTICAL FORM -
White, circular, biconvex tablets of 8.5 mm.
04.0 CLINICAL INFORMATION -
04.1 Therapeutic indications -
Treatment of essential hypertension in patients with blood pressure inadequately controlled by monotherapy with 10 mg lercanidipine.
The fixed combination Coripren 10 mg / 10 mg should not be used for the initial treatment of hypertension.
04.2 Posology and method of administration -
Patients with blood pressure inadequately controlled by 10 mg lercanidipine monotherapy have the option of taking 20 mg lercanidipine alone or switching to Coripren 10 mg / 10 mg fixed combination.
Individual titration of the components is recommended. If clinically appropriate, a direct switch from monotherapy to fixed combination can be considered.
The recommended dose is one tablet a day at least 15 minutes before meals.
Senior citizens: the dose depends on the patient's renal function (see "Patients with renal impairment").
Patients with renal impairment: Coripren is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance hemodialysis (see sections 4.3 and 4.4). Particular caution is recommended when initiating treatment in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment.
Patients with hepatic impairment: Coripren is contraindicated in severe hepatic insufficiency. Particular caution is recommended at the initiation of treatment in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment.
Pediatric population: there is no specific use of Coripren in the pediatric population in the indication of hypertension.
Method of administration
Precautions to be taken before handling or administering the medicinal product:
- The treatment should preferably be administered in the morning at least 15 minutes before breakfast.
- This medicinal product must not be taken with grapefruit juice (see sections 4.3 and 4.5).
04.3 Contraindications -
Hypersensitivity to the active substances or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.
Coripren should not be given in the following cases:
• hypersensitivity to an ACE inhibitor or dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker or to any of the excipients present in the medicine
• history of angioedema caused by previous therapy with an ACE inhibitor
• hereditary or idiopathic angioedema
• second and third trimester of pregnancy (see sections 4.4 and 4.6)
• left ventricular ejection obstruction, including aortic stenosis
• untreated congestive heart failure
• unstable angina pectoris
• recent myocardial infarction (less than a month ago)
• severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance
• severe hepatic impairment
• concomitant treatment with:
or potent CYP3A4 inhibitors (see section 4.5)
o cyclosporine (see section 4.5)
o grapefruit juice (see section 4.5)
The concomitant use of Coripren with aliskiren-containing medicines is contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus or renal impairment (glomerular filtration rate GFR
04.4 Special warnings and appropriate precautions for use -
Symptomatic hypotension has been rarely observed in patients with uncomplicated hypertension. In hypertensive patients treated with enalapril, symptomatic hypotension is more likely to occur if the patient is hypovolaemic, for example in the case of therapy with diuretics, limitation salt in the diet, dialysis, diarrhea or vomiting (see section 4.5). Symptomatic hypotension has been observed in patients with heart failure, with or without associated renal insufficiency. This is more likely to occur in patients with more severe heart failure. following the use of high doses of loop diuretics, hyponatremia or renal insufficiency. In these patients, therapy should be initiated under medical supervision and patients should be followed closely in case of dose adjustments of enalapril and / or diuretic. Similar considerations apply to patients with cardiac ischaemia or cerebrovascular disease for whom excessive low blood pressure could result in myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident.
Should hypotension occur, the patient should be placed in the supine position and, if necessary, given intravenous saline infusion. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further doses, which can generally be given without difficulty as soon as blood pressure has increased after volume expansion.
In some heart failure patients with normal or low blood pressure, administration of enalapril may cause a further reduction in systemic blood pressure. This effect is expected and is generally not a reason for discontinuation of treatment. If hypotension becomes symptomatic. , dose reduction and / or discontinuation of the diuretic and / or enalapril may be necessary.
Sick sinus syndrome
Particular caution is recommended in the use of lercanidipine in patients with sick sinus syndrome (if a pacemaker is not implanted).
Left ventricular dysfunction and cardiac ischemia
Although controlled hemodynamic studies have shown no impairment of ventricular function, caution should be exercised in patients with left ventricular dysfunction during treatment with calcium channel blockers. Patients with cardiac ischaemia have been shown to have an elevated cardiovascular risk during treatment with some short-acting dihydropyridines. Although lercanidipine has a long duration of action, caution is required in such patients.
In rare cases, some dihydropyridines can cause precordial pain or angina pectoris. Very rarely, in patients with pre-existing angina pectoris, these attacks may occur with greater frequency, duration or severity. Isolated cases of myocardial infarction may be observed (see section 4.8).
Use in case of renal impairment
Particular caution is required during the initial phase of enalapril treatment in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. Routine monitoring of serum potassium and creatinine are part of the normal medical management of these patients.
Renal failure associated with the use of enalapril has been reported mainly in patients with severe cardiac dysfunction or underlying renal disease, including renal artery stenosis. If promptly diagnosed and adequately treated, renal failure following treatment with renal disease. enalapril is generally reversible.
In some cases of hypertension without pre-existing obvious renal disease, the combination of enalapril with a diuretic may lead to an increase in blood urea and creatinine levels. discontinuation of the diuretic. In these cases, the possibility of underlying renal artery stenosis should be considered (see section 4.4, Renovascular hypertension).
Patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or artery stenosis of only one functioning kidney are particularly at risk of developing hypotension or renal failure following therapy with ACE inhibitors. Loss of renal function can occur with only minor changes in serum creatinine. In these patients, treatment should be initiated under close medical supervision, with reduced doses and careful titration and monitoring of renal function.
There is no clinical experience with the use of lercanidipine or enalapril in patients who have recently undergone kidney transplantation. Treatment of these patients with Coripren is therefore not recommended.
The antihypertensive effect of lercanidipine may be enhanced in patients with hepatic dysfunction.
Rarely, treatment with ACE inhibitors has been associated with a syndrome that begins with cholestatic jaundice or hepatitis and progresses to fulminant hepatic necrosis (sometimes fatal). The mechanism of this syndrome is not known. Patients who develop jaundice or marked elevation of liver enzymes following treatment with ACE inhibitors should stop taking the ACE inhibitor and receive appropriate medical supervision.
Neutropenia / agranulocytosis
Neutropenia / agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia and anemia have been reported in patients taking ACE inhibitors. In patients with normal renal function and no particular risk factors, neutropenia rarely occurs. Enalapril should be used with extreme caution in patients with vascular collagen disease, receiving immunosuppressant therapy, allopurinol, procainamide, or in whom several of these risk factors are present, particularly in the presence of impaired pre-existing renal function. Some of these patients have developed severe infections which in some cases have not responded to intensive antibiotic therapy. If enalapril is used in such patients, periodic monitoring of white blood cell counts is advised and patients should be advised of the need to report any signs of infection to the patient. your doctor.
Hypersensitivity / angioneurotic edema
Cases of angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and / or larynx have been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors, including enalapril. This can occur at any time during therapy. In these cases, the use of enalapril should be discontinued immediately and the patient should be closely monitored to ensure complete resolution of symptoms prior to hospital discharge. In cases where swelling is confined to the tongue alone, without respiratory distress, patients may require prolonged observation as treatment with antihistamines and corticosteroids may not be sufficient.
Fatal outcome due to angioneurotic edema of the larynx or tongue has been reported very rarely. Patients with involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx, particularly those with a history of airway surgery, may experience respiratory obstruction .
In case of involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx resulting in respiratory obstruction, appropriate treatment should be started immediately, eg. subcutaneous administration of adrenaline (dilution 1: 1000) from 0.3 ml to 0.5 ml and / or take all necessary measures to ensure a patent airway.
A higher incidence of angioedema following the use of ACE inhibitors has been reported in black patients compared to non-black patients.
Patients with a history of angioedema not triggered by the use of ACE inhibitors may be at increased risk of angioedema when administering an ACE inhibitor (see section 4.3).
Anaphylactoid reactions during desensitization with hymenoptera venoms
Dangerous anaphylactoid reactions have rarely occurred during desensitization therapy against hymenoptera venoms and concomitant use of an ACE inhibitor. These reactions can be avoided by temporarily withholding the ACE inhibitor prior to each desensitization treatment.
Anaphylactoid reactions during low density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis
Dangerous anaphylactoid reactions have rarely occurred during low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis with dextran sulfate in patients receiving ACE inhibitors. Such reactions can be avoided by temporarily withholding the ACE inhibitor prior to each apheresis.
In diabetic patients treated with oral antidiabetic agents or insulin, starting treatment with ACE inhibitors, they should be advised to carefully monitor for hypoglycaemia especially during the first month of concomitant use (see section 4.5).
Cough has been observed with the use of ACE inhibitors. This cough is usually non-productive, persistent and resolves after discontinuation of therapy. ACE inhibitor-induced cough should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cough.
Surgery / Anesthesia
In patients undergoing major surgery or during anesthesia with blood pressure lowering agents, enalapril inhibits the formation of angiotensin II, which would otherwise occur as a result of compensatory renin secretion. If hypotension occurs as a result of this mechanism, it can be corrected by expanding the volume.
Elevations in serum potassium have been observed in some patients treated with ACE inhibitors, including enalapril.Risk factors for the development of hyperkalaemia include: renal failure, worsening of renal function, age (> 70 years), diabetes mellitus, concomitant events such as dehydration, acute heart failure, metabolic acidosis and concomitant intake of potassium-sparing diuretics ( eg. spironolactone, eplerenone, triamterene or amiloride), potassium supplements or salt substitutes containing potassium as well as the concomitant intake of other drugs that may increase serum potassium levels (eg heparin). potassium, potassium-sparing diuretics or potassium-containing salt substitutes in patients with impaired renal function may lead to a significant increase in serum potassium. Hypepokalaemia can cause serious arrhythmias, sometimes fatal. If concomitant use of enalapril and any of the agents mentioned above is indicated, they should be used with caution and serum potassium should be monitored regularly (see section 4.5).
The combined use of lithium and enalapril is generally not recommended (see section 4.5).
Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)
There is evidence that concomitant use of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren increases the risk of hypotension, hyperkalaemia and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure). Dual blockade of the RAAS through the combined use of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren is therefore not recommended (see sections 4.5 and 5.1). If dual block therapy is considered absolutely necessary, this should only be done under the supervision of a specialist and with close and frequent monitoring of kidney function, electrolytes and blood pressure.
ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists should not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.
CYP3A4 inducers such as anticonvulsants (e.g. phenytoin, carbamazepine) and rifampicin may decrease the serum levels of lercanidipine and therefore its efficacy may be less than expected (see section 4.5).
As with other ACE inhibitors, enalapril appears to be less effective in lowering blood pressure in black patients than in non-blacks, possibly because plasma renin levels are often lower in the black hypertensive population.
The use of Coripren is not recommended during pregnancy.
Treatment with ACE inhibitors, such as enalapril, should not be initiated during pregnancy. Unless administration of ACE inhibitors is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be switched to antihypertensive drug treatments. treatment with ACE inhibitors should be stopped immediately and, if necessary, alternative therapy should be started as soon as pregnancy is diagnosed.
The use of lercanidipine is also not recommended during pregnancy or in women planning to become pregnant (see section 4.6).
The use of Coripren is not recommended during lactation (see section 4.6).
The safety and efficacy of this combination have not been demonstrated in children.
Alcohol intake should be avoided as it may potentiate the vasodilator effect of antihypertensive drugs (see section 4.5).
Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take Coripren.
04.5 Interactions with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction -
The antihypertensive effect of Coripren may be potentiated by other hypotensive drugs, such as diuretics, beta-blockers, alpha-blockers and other substances.
In addition, the following interactions with one or the other component of the association were observed.
Some active substances or therapeutic classes can favor the development of hyperkalaemia:
potassium salts, potassium-sparing diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II inhibitors, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, heparins (low molecular weight or unfractionated), cyclosporine and tacrolimus, trimethoprim.
The onset of hyperkalaemia may depend on the presence of associated risk factors.
This risk increases in combination with the drugs mentioned above.
Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)
Clinical trial data have shown that dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) through the combined use of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren is associated with a higher frequency of adverse events. such as hypotension, hyperkalaemia and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to the use of a single agent active on the RAAS system (see sections 4.3, 4.4 and 5.1).
Potassium-sparing diuretics or potassium supplements
ACE inhibitors attenuate diuretic induced potassium loss. Potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g. spironolactone, eplerenone, triamterene or amiloride), potassium supplements or potassium-containing salt substitutes may lead to a significant increase in serum potassium level. If concomitant use is indicated due to demonstrated hypokalaemia, they should be used with caution and with frequent monitoring of serum potassium (see section 4.4).
Diuretics (thiazides or loop diuretics)
Previous treatment with high-dose diuretics may result in hypovolaemia and risk of hypotension when initiating therapy with enalapril (see section 4.4). Hypotensive effects can be reduced by discontinuation of the diuretic, increased blood volume either taking salt or starting therapy with a reduced dose of enalapril.
Concomitant use with other antihypertensive agents may increase the hypotensive effects of enalapril. The concomitant use of nitroglycerin and other nitrates or vasodilators may lead to a further reduction in blood pressure.
When co-administered with ACE inhibitors, reversible increases in serum concentrations and lithium toxicity have been reported. Concomitant use of thiazide diuretics may further increase the serum lithium concentration, resulting in an increased risk of lithium toxicity with ACE inhibitors. The use of enalapril with lithium is not recommended, but if the combination is proves necessary, careful monitoring of serum lithium levels should be performed (see section 4.4).
Tricyclic antidepressants / antipsychotics / anesthetics / narcotics
The concomitant use of some anesthetic medicinal products, tricyclic antidepressants and antipsychotics with ACE inhibitors may result in a further reduction in blood pressure (see section 4.4).
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (COX-2 inhibitors) may reduce the effects of diuretics and other antihypertensive drugs. Consequently, NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors may attenuate the antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists or ACE inhibitors.
Concomitant use of NSAIDs (including COX-2 inhibitors) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists or ACE inhibitors exerts an additive effect on the increase in serum potassium, and may result in deterioration of renal function. These effects are generally reversible. In rare cases, acute renal failure may occur, especially in patients with impaired renal function (such as the elderly or patients with hypovolaemia, including patients treated with diuretics). Concomitant intake of the above mentioned drugs should therefore be managed with caution in patients with impaired renal function. Patients should be adequately hydrated and renal function after initiation of concomitant therapy should be monitored periodically.
Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include flushing, nausea, vomiting and hypotension) have been reported rarely in patients receiving therapy with injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate) and concomitant administration of ACE inhibitors, including enalapril.
Sympathomimetic drugs can reduce the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors. A reduced response to pressor amines (eg adrenaline) is possible, but not sufficient to preclude their use.
Epidemiological studies have suggested that concomitant administration of ACE inhibitors and antidiabetic drugs (insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents) may cause an increase in the hypoglycemic effect of the latter, with the risk of hypoglycaemia. These cases appear to occur more likely during the former. weeks of combined treatment and in patients with impaired renal function (see sections 4.4 and 4.8).
Ciclosporin increases the risk of hyperkalaemia with ACE inhibitors.
Alcohol potentiates the hypotensive effect of ACE inhibitors.
Acetylsalicylic acid, thrombolytics e
Enalapril can be safely administered together with acetylsalicylic acid (in doses appropriate for cardiovascular prophylaxis), thrombolytics and beta-blockers.
Corticosteroids, tetracosactide (systemic) (except hydrocortisone used as a substitute in Addison's disease):
Reduction of the antihypertensive effect (corticosteroid-induced salt and water retention) (see section 4.4).
Allopurinol, cytostatics or immunosuppressive agents, systemic corticosteroids or procainamide
Concomitant administration with ACE inhibitors may lead to an increased risk of leukopenia (see section 4.4).
Antacids induce a decrease in the bioavailability of ACE inhibitors.
Since lercanidipine is metabolised by the CYP3A4 enzyme, concomitant administration of CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers may interact with the metabolism and elimination of lercanidipine.
Concomitant administration of lercanidipine with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir, erythromycin, troleandomycin) is contraindicated (see section 4.3).
An interaction study with ketoconazole, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, showed a considerable increase in plasma levels of lercanidipine (a 15-fold increase in the area under the drug concentration / time curve, AUC, and an 8-fold increase in Cmax. for the S-lercanidipine eutomer).
Ciclosporin and lercanidipine must not be used together (see section 4.3).
Following the concomitant administration of lercanidipine and cyclosporine, an increase in plasma levels of both active substances was observed. A study in young healthy volunteers has shown that when cyclosporine is administered 3 hours after lercanidipine intake, the plasma levels of lercanidipine do not change, while the cyclosporine AUC increases by 27%. Co-administration of lercanidipine with cyclosporine caused a 3-fold increase in plasma levels of lercanidipine and a 21% increase in cyclosporine AUC.
Lercanidipine must not be taken together with grapefruit juice (see section 4.3).
As with other dihydropyridines, lercanidipine is sensitive to the metabolic inhibition caused by grapefruit juice, with a consequent increase in its systemic availability and an increase in its hypotensive effect.
Alcohol intake should be avoided as it may potentiate the vasodilating effect of antihypertensive drugs (see section 4.4).
Caution should be exercised when lercanidipine is taken together with other CYP3A4 substrates, such as terfenadine, astemizole, class III antiarrhythmic drugs such as amiodarone and quinidine.
Concomitant administration of lercanidipine with inducers of CYP3A4 such as anticonvulsant drugs (eg phenytoin, carbamazepine) and rifampicin should be done with caution as the antihypertensive effect may be reduced and blood pressure should be monitored more frequently than usual.
In patients undergoing chronic treatment with β-methyldigoxine, co-administration of 20 mg of lercanidipine showed no pharmacokinetic interaction. Healthy volunteers treated with digoxin, following administration of 20 mg of lercanidipine, showed a mean increase of 33% in digoxin Cmax, while AUC and renal clearance were not significantly changed. Patients concomitantly treated with digoxin to detect any signs of digoxin toxicity.
In elderly volunteers, concomitant oral administration of 20 mg midazolam enhanced the absorption of lercanidipine (approximately 40%) and decreased its rate of absorption (delayed tmax from 1.75 to 3 hours). midazolam concentrations.
When lercanidipine was co-administered with metoprolol - a β-blocker eliminated primarily by the liver - the bioavailability of metoprolol remained unchanged, while that of alercanidipine was reduced by 50%. This effect could be due to the reduction in hepatic blood flow caused by β-blockers, therefore it could also occur with other drugs of this class. Nevertheless, lercanidipine can be safely used concurrently with β-adrenergic receptor blockers.
Plasma levels of lercanidipine are not significantly changed in patients receiving concomitant treatment with 800 mg cimetidine per day, however caution should be exercised with higher doses, as increases in both the bioavailability of lercanidipine and its hypotensive effect may occur.
An interaction study with fluoxetine (an inhibitor of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4), conducted in healthy volunteers aged 65 ± 7 years (mean ± s), showed no clinically relevant change in the pharmacokinetic properties of lercanidipine.
During repeated co-administration of a 20 mg dose of lercanidipine and 40 mg of simvastatin, the AUC of lercanidipine was not significantly changed, while the AUC of simvastatin increased by 56% and that of its main active metabolite, the β-hydroxy acid, by 28%. Such variations are unlikely to be of clinical relevance. No interaction is expected if lercanidipine is administered in the morning and simvastatin in the evening as indicated for this drug.
Co-administration of 20 mg of mercanidipine taken by fasted healthy volunteers does not alter the pharmacokinetics of warfarin.
Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.
04.6 Pregnancy and breastfeeding -
The use of ACE inhibitors (enalapril) is not recommended during the first trimester of pregnancy (see section 4.4). The use of ACE inhibitors (enalapril) is contraindicated during the second and third trimester of pregnancy (see sections 4.3). and 4.4).
No definitive epidemiological evidence is available on the risk of teratogenesis following exposure to ACE inhibitors during the first trimester of pregnancy; however, a small increase in risk cannot be excluded. Unless administration of ACE inhibitors is considered. essential, patients planning to become pregnant should be switched to alternative antihypertensive drugs which are safe for use during pregnancy. As soon as pregnancy is diagnosed, discontinue treatment with ACE inhibitors immediately and, if necessary, initiate an alternative therapy.
Exposure to ACE inhibitor therapy during the second and third trimesters induces human foetotoxicity (decreased renal function, oligohydramnios, cranial ossification retardation) and neonatal toxicity (renal failure, hypotension, hyperkalaemia) (see section 5.3). . Cases of maternal oligohydramnios have occurred, presumably indicative of reduced fetal renal function and which can induce contractures of the limbs, craniofacial deformations and development of pulmonary hypoplasia. If exposure to ACE inhibitors has occurred after the second trimester of pregnancy, ultrasound check of renal function and skull is recommended. Children whose mothers have taken ACE inhibitors should be closely monitored for onset. hypotension (see sections 4.3 and 4.4).
Studies conducted on animals treated with lercanidipine did not show teratogenic effects, which were instead observed with the use of other dihydropyridine compounds.
No clinical data on exposure to lercanidipine in pregnancy are available, therefore use in pregnancy or in women of childbearing potential is not recommended unless effective contraceptive measures are in place.
Combination of enalapril and lercanidipine
There are no or few data on the use of the combination enalapril maleate / lercanidipine hydrochloride in pregnant women. Animal studies are insufficient with respect to reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3).
The use of Coripren is contraindicated in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. It is not recommended during the first trimester of pregnancy and in women of childbearing potential who are not using any contraception.
Limited pharmacokinetic data demonstrate very low concentrations in breast milk (see section 5.2). Although these concentrations appear to be clinically irrelevant, the use of enalapril in breastfeeding is not recommended for preterm infants and in the first few weeks after delivery due to the hypothetical risk of cardiovascular and renal effects and insufficient clinical experience.
In older children, if deemed necessary for the mother, enalapril can be taken during breastfeeding, but in this case the child should be followed up for possible adverse effects.
The excretion of lercanidipine in human milk is unknown.
Combination of enalapril and lercanidipine
Consequently, the use of Coripren is not recommended during breastfeeding.
Reversible biochemical changes in the head of spermatozoa, which could impair fertilization, have been reported in some patients treated with calcium channel blockers. In the face of repeated unsuccessful in-vitro fertilization, and in the absence of other explanations, the possibility of attributing the cause to calcium channel blockers can be considered.
04.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines -
Coripren moderately affects the ability to drive or use machines. However, caution is advised as symptoms such as dizziness, asthenia, tiredness and in rare cases somnolence may occur (see section 4.8).
04.8 Undesirable effects -
Summary of the safety profile
The safety of Coripren was evaluated in five double-blind controlled clinical studies and in two long-term open-label studies. In total, 1,141 patients received Coripren at a dose of 10mg / 10mg, 20mg / 10mg and 20mg / 20mg. The undesirable effects of the combination are similar to those observed following the administration of one or the other component. The most commonly reported adverse reactions during treatment with Coripren were: cough (4.03%), dizziness (1.67%) and headache (1.67%).
Tabular summary of adverse reactions
In the table below, adverse reactions reported in clinical studies with administration of Coripren 10mg / 10mg, 20mg / 10mg and 20mg / 20mg and for which a reasonable causal relationship has been established, are listed by MedDRA classification: very common ( > 1/10), common (≥1 / 100 to
Side effects occurring in only one patient are listed under the frequency rare.
Additional information on the individual components.
Adverse reactions reported with any of the individual components (enalapril or lercanidipine) may be potential undesirable effects with Coripren as well, even if not observed in clinical trials or during the post-marketing period.
The reported side effects for enalapril are:
Disorders of the blood and lymphatic system:
Uncommon: anemia (including aplastic and haemolytic forms)
Rare: neutropenia, decreased hemoglobin, decreased hematocrit, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, bone marrow depression, pancytopenia, lymphadenopathy, autoimmune diseases
Not known: syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).
Metabolism and nutrition disorders:
Uncommon: hypoglycaemia (see section 4.4)
Nervous system disorders and psychiatric disorders:
Common: headache, depression
Uncommon: confusion, somnolence, insomnia, nervousness, paraesthesia, dizziness
Rare: abnormal dreams, sleep disturbances
Very common: blurred vision
Cardiac and vascular disorders:
Very common: dizziness
Common: hypotension (including orthostatic hypotension), syncope, chest pain, arrhythmia, angina pectoris, tachycardia
Uncommon: orthostatic hypotension, palpitations, myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident *, possibly as a result of excessive hypotension in high-risk patients (see section 4.4)
Rare: Raynaud's phenomenon
* The incidence rates in clinical trials were comparable to those treated with placebo and those with active control.
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders:
Very common: cough
Uncommon: rhinorrhea, oropharyngeal pain and dysphonia, bronchospasm / asthma
Rare: pulmonary infiltrates, rhinitis, allergic alveolitis / eosinophilic pneumonia
Very common: nausea
Common: diarrhea, abdominal pain, taste disturbance
Uncommon: ileus, pancreatitis, vomiting, dyspepsia, constipation, anorexia, gastric irritation, dry mouth, peptic ulcer
Rare: stomatitis, aphthous ulcerations, glossitis
Very rare: intestinal angioedema
Rare: hepatic failure, hepatitis, both hepatocellular and cholestatic, hepatitis including necrosis, cholestasis (including jaundice)
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders:
Common: rash, hypersensitivity / angioedema: cases of angioneurotic edema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and / or larynx have been reported (see section 4.4)
Uncommon: diaphoresis, pruritus, urticaria, alopecia
Rare: Erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, pemphigus, erythroderma
A symptom complex has been reported which may include some or all of the following conditions: fever, serositis, vasculitis, myalgia / myositis, arthralgia / arthritis, positivity for ANA, elevated ESR, eosinophilia and leukocytosis. Possibility of the appearance of skin rashes, photosensitivity or other dermatological manifestations.
Renal and urinary disorders:
Uncommon: renal impairment, renal failure, proteinuria
Reproductive system and breast disorders:
General disorders and administration site conditions:
Very common: asthenia
Uncommon: muscle cramps, flushing, tinnitus, malaise, fever
Common: hyperkalaemia, blood creatinine increased
Uncommon: increased uremia, hyponatremia
Rare: increased liver enzymes, increased blood bilirubin
The most commonly observed adverse drug reactions in controlled clinical trials include: headache, dizziness, peripheral edema, tachycardia, palpitations and flushing,
Immune system disorders:
Very rare: hypersensitivity
Nervous system disorders:
Uncommon: headache, dizziness
Uncommon: tachycardia, palpitations
Rare: angina pectoris
Uncommon: hot flashes
Very rare: syncope
Rare: nausea, dyspepsia, diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders:
Rare: skin rashes
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders:
Renal and urinary disorders:
General disorders and administration site conditions:
Uncommon: peripheral edema
Rare: asthenia, fatigue
Spontaneous reports received in post-marketing experience have reported very rarely (gingival hypertrophy, reversible increases in serum levels of hepatic transaminases, hypotension, urinary frequency and chest pain.
Some dihydropyridines may rarely cause localized precordial pain or angina pectoris. Very rarely, an increase in the frequency, duration or severity of these attacks may occur in patients with pre-existing angina pectoris. Isolated cases of myocardial infarction can occur.
There are no adverse effects of lercanidipine on blood glucose or serum lipid levels.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions is also important after authorization of the drug. It allows continuous monitoring of the benefit / risk balance of the drug. Healthcare professionals are required to report any suspected adverse reactions through the national reporting system at www. Agenziafarmaco.gov.it/it/responsabili
04.9 Overdose -
In post-marketing experience, some cases of intentional overdose have been reported with the administration of enalapril / lercanidipine at doses of 100 to 1,000 mg each requiring hospitalization. Symptoms reported (decreased systolic blood pressure, bradycardia, restlessness, somnolence and flank pain) may also have been caused by the concomitant administration of high doses of other drugs (e.g. β-blockers).
Symptoms of overdose with enalapril and lercanidipine taken individually:
The most important symptoms of overdose reported to date are marked hypotension (approximately six hours after ingestion of the tablets), concomitant with a blockade of the renin-angiotensin system and stupor.
Symptoms associated with ACE inhibitor overdose may include circulatory shock, electrolyte disturbances, renal failure, hyperventilation, tachycardia, palpitations, bradycardia, dizziness, anxiety and cough. After ingestion of enalapril 300 mg and 440 mg, respectively, serum levels of enalaprilat were reported 100 and 200 times higher than those normally observed following therapeutic doses, respectively.
As with other dihydropyridines, lercanidipine overdose could cause excessive peripheral vasodilation with marked hypotension and reflex tachycardia.
Treatment of enalapril and lercanidipine overdose cases taken individually:
The recommended treatment for enalapril overdose is intravenous infusion of saline. In the presence of hypotension, the patient should be placed in an anti-shock position. If available, treatment with angiotensin II infusion may also be considered. / or intravenous catecholamines. If the ingestion of the tablets is recent, adequate measures should be taken to eliminate enalapril maleate (eg induction of vomiting, gastric lavage, administration of adsorbents or sodium sulphate). Enalaprilat can be removed from the circulation by hemodialysis (see section 4.4). Pacemaker application is indicated in the case of therapy-resistant bradycardia. Continuously monitor vital signs, serum electrolytes and creatinine.
With lercanidipine in cases of severe hypotension, bradycardia and loss of consciousness, cardiovascular support via intravenous atropine may be necessary to counteract bradycardia.
Given the prolonged pharmacological action of lercanidipine, the cardiovascular status of patients who have taken an overdose should be monitored for at least 24 hours. There is no information on the usefulness of dialysis. Since the drug is highly lipophilic, plasma levels are very unlikely to be indicative of the duration of the risk phase. Dialysis may not be effective.
05.0 PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES -
05.1 "Pharmacodynamic properties -
Pharmacotherapeutic group: ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blockers: enalapril and lercanidipine.
ATC code: C09BB02.
Coripren is a fixed combination of an ACE inhibitor (enalapril) and a calcium channel blocker (lercanidipine) two antihypertensive drugs with complementary mechanisms of action to control blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension.
Enalapril maleate is the maleate salt of enalapril, a derivative of two amino acids, L-alanine and L-proline. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a peptidyldipeptidase that catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to the pressure-acting substance angiotensin II. After absorption, enalapril is hydrolyzed to enalaprilat, which inhibits ACE. Inhibition of ACE results in a decrease in plasma angiotensin II levels, with an increase in plasma renin activity (due to the removal of the negative feedback exerted on renin release) and a decrease in aldosterone secretion.
Since ACE is identical to kininase II, enalapril can also inhibit the breakdown of bradykinin, a potent vasodilator peptide. However, the role of this mechanism in the therapeutic effects of enalapril is not yet known.
Although the mechanism by which enalapril lowers blood pressure is primarily attributed to suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, enalapril produces antihypertensive effects even in patients with reduced renin levels.
Administration of enalapril to hypertensive patients produces a reduction in both supine and standing blood pressure, without a significant increase in heart rate.
Symptomatic orthostatic hypotension is rare. In some patients it may take several weeks of treatment to achieve optimal blood pressure control. Sudden withdrawal of enalapril has not been associated with a rapid rise in blood pressure.
The efficacy of inhibiting ACE activity normally begins 2 to 4 hours after oral administration of a single dose of enalapril. The onset of antihypertensive activity is usually seen after 1 hour and maximal activity is achieved within 4 hours. - 6 hours after administration. The duration of the effect depends on the dose; however, at the recommended dose, the haemodynamic and antihypertensive effects persist for at least 24 hours.
From haemodynamic studies conducted in patients with essential hypertension, it was found that the reduction in blood pressure was accompanied by a reduction in peripheral arterial resistance, with an increase in cardiac output and no or minimal change in heart rate. An increase in renal blood flow occurred after administration of enalapril; the glomerular filtration rate remained unchanged. There were no signs of water or sodium retention. However, in patients with reduced glomerular filtration rate prior to treatment, this rate is generally increased.
Decreases in albuminuria, urinary IgG excretion and total proteinuria have been observed in short-term clinical studies in diabetic and non-diabetic renal patients after administration of enalapril.
Two large, randomized, controlled trials ONTARGET (ONgoingTelmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) and VA Nephron-D (The Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes) have examined the use of the combination of an ACE inhibitor with a heart receptor antagonist. "angiotensin II.
ONTARGET is a study conducted in patients with a history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, or type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with evidence of organ damage. VA NEPHRON-D is a study conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy.
These studies did not demonstrate any significant beneficial effect on renal and / or cardiovascular outcomes and mortality, while an increased risk of hyperkalaemia, acute renal injury and / or hypotension was observed compared to monotherapy. These results are also relevant for other ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists, given their similar pharmacodynamic properties. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists should therefore not be used concurrently in patients. with diabetic nephropathy.
ALTITUDE (Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardiovascular and Renal DiseaseEndpoints) is a study aimed at verifying the advantage of adding aliskiren to standard therapy of an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor antagonist in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, or both The study was terminated early due to an increased risk of adverse events.Cardiovascular death and stroke were both numerically more frequent in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group, and adverse events and serious adverse events of interest (hyperkalaemia, hypotension and renal dysfunction) were reported more frequently in the aliskiren group than in the placebo group.
Lercanidipine is a calcium channel blocker of the dihydropyridine group and inhibits the flow of calcium across the cell membrane of smooth and cardiac muscle. The mechanism of its antihypertensive action is due to a direct relaxing effect on vascular smooth muscle, with a consequent reduction in total peripheral resistance. Despite its short plasma half-life, lercanidipine, thanks to its high partition coefficient in the membrane, has a prolonged antihypertensive activity and does not cause negative inotropic effects due to its high vascular selectivity.
Since lercanidipine-induced vasodilation occurs gradually, acute hypotension with reflex tachycardia has only rarely occurred in hypertensive patients.
As with other asymmetric 1,4-dihydropyridines, the antihypertensive activity of lercanidipine is mainly due to its (S) -enantiomer.
Enalapril / Lercanidipine
The combination of these two substances has an additive antihypertensive effect which reduces blood pressure more than the use of the single components.
- Coripren 10mg / 10mg
In a double-blind phase III add-on clinical study in 342 patients inadequately controlled on 10 mg lercanidipine monotherapy (PAD, diastolic blood pressure, sitting 95-114 mmHg and PAS, systolic blood pressure, 140 -189 mmHg), after 12 weeks of double-blind treatment, the reduction in systolic blood pressure was 5.4 mmHg greater with the enalapril 10 mg / lercanidipine 10 mg combination compared to lercanidipine 10 mg monotherapy (-7.7 mmHg vs -2.3 mmHg, p 140 / 90mmHg: titration was performed in 133 of 221 patients and PAD was normalized after titration in 1/3 of cases.
- Coripren 20mg / 10mg
In a double-blind phase III add-on clinical study in 327 patients inadequately controlled by enalapril 20 mg monotherapy (PAD, sitting diastolic blood pressure 95-114 mmHg and PAS, systolic blood pressure 140-189 mmHg ), patients treated with enalapril 20 mg / lercanidipine 10 mg achieved a significantly greater reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure than that seen in patients remaining on monotherapy, for both PAS (-9.8 vs -6.7 mmHg p = 0.013) -than for PAD (9.2 vs -7.5 mmHg p = 0.015). The percentage of patients who responded to treatment with combination therapy was non-statistically significantly higher than monotherapy for both PAD (53% vs 43% p = 0.076) and PAS (41% vs 33% p = 0.116), as well as the percentage of patients in combination therapy with blood pressure normalized for PAD (48% vs 37% p = 0.055) and for PAS (33% vs 28% p = 0.325) compared to monotherapy patients.
- Coripren 20mg / 20mg
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-controlled factorial study of 1,039 patients with moderate hypertension (blood pressure measured in the sitting position in the PAD study: 100-109 mmHg, PAD home blood pressure PAS ≥ 85 mmHg), the patients on enalapril 20mg / lercanidipine 20mg had significantly greater reductions in PAS and PAD, both measured at home and measured in the practice, compared to placebo (p
05.2 "Pharmacokinetic properties -
No pharmacokinetic interactions were observed during concomitant administration of enalapril and lercanidipine.
Pharmacokinetic properties of enalapril
Oral enalapril is rapidly absorbed and peak serum concentration is reached within one hour of administration. Based on the amount excreted in the urine, the rate of absorption of enalapril from oral enalapril maleate is approximately 60%. The absorption of oral enalapril is not affected by the presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract.
After absorption, oral enalapril is rapidly and extensively hydrolyzed to enalaprilat, a potent angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. The peak serum concentration of enalaprilat occurs 3 to 4 hours after an oral dose of enalapril maleate. The effective accumulation half-life of enalaprilat following multiple doses of oral enalapril is 11 hours. In patients with normal renal function. , steady state enalaprilat serum concentrations were reached after four days of treatment.
In the therapeutically relevant concentration range, the binding of enalaprilat to human plasma proteins does not exceed 60%.
Other than conversion to enalaprilat, there is no evidence of significant metabolism of enalapril.
Enalaprilat is eliminated primarily by the kidney. The major constituents in the urine are enalaprilat, which accounts for 40% of the dose, and unchanged enalapril (approximately 20%).
The exposure to enalapril and enalaprilat increases in patients with renal insufficiency. In patients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance 40-60 ml / min), the steady-state AUC of enalaprilat was approximately twice that of patients with normal renal function after administration of 5 mg once daily. In the presence of severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance ≤30 ml / min), the AUC is increased approximately 8-fold. At these levels of renal insufficiency, the effective half-life of enalaprilat after multiple doses of enalapril maleate is prolonged and the time to steady state is increased (see section 4.2).
Enalaprilat can be removed from the general circulation by hemodialysis. Dialysis clearance is 62 mL / min.
After a single 20 mg oral dose administered postpartum to five women, the mean peak plasma enalapril in milk was 1.7 mcg / L (range 0.54-5.9 mcg / L) between 4 and 6 o'clock. hours after administration. The mean plasma peak of enalaprilat was 1.7 mcg / l (range 1.2 to 2.3 mcg / l); the spikes occurred at different times throughout the 24 hours. Using data from peak milk levels, the estimated maximum intake of an exclusively breastfed infant would be approximately 0.16% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose. A woman taking enalapril at a dose of 10 mg per day orally for 11 months has a peak enalapril milk plasma of 2 mcg / l 4 hours after dosing and a peak enalaprilat plasma of 0.75 mcg / l approximately 9 hours after dosing. The total amount of enalapril and enalaprilat detected in milk over 24 hours was 1.44mcg / L and 0.63mcg / L milk, respectively. Levels of enalaprilat in milk were undetectable (
Pharmacokinetic properties of lercanidipine
Lercanidipine is completely absorbed after oral administration and the plasma peak is reached after approximately 1.5 - 3 hours.
The two enantiomers of lercanidipine show a similar plasma level profile: the time required to obtain the maximum plasma concentration is identical, the maximum plasma concentration and AUC are, on average, 1.2 times higher for the (S) enantiomer. The elimination half-life of the two enantiomers is essentially the same. No "in vivo" interconversion of the enantiomers was observed.
Due to the elevated first pass metabolism, the absolute bioavailability of lercanidipine administered orally to fed patients is approximately 10%; it is reduced to one third when administered to healthy volunteers in the fasted state.
The oral availability of lercanidipine increases 4-fold when taken up to 2 hours after a high-fat meal. Therefore, the drug should be taken before meals.
Distribution from plasma to tissues and organs is rapid and extensive.
The degree of binding of lercanidipine to plasma proteins exceeds 98%. In patients with severe renal or hepatic dysfunction, plasma protein levels are reduced and the free fraction of the drug may increase.
Lercanidipine is extensively metabolised by CYP3A4; the drug was not found in urine or faeces. It is mainly converted to inactive metabolites and approximately 50% of the dose is excreted in the urine.
Experiments "in vitro"with human liver microsomes have shown that lercanidipine exerts a modest inhibition of the two enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 at concentrations 160 and 40 times higher than those reached at peak in plasma after administration of a dose of 20 mg.
Furthermore, interaction studies in humans have shown that lercanidipine does not modify the plasma levels of midazolam, a typical substrate of CYP3A4, or of metoprolol, a typical substrate of CYP2D6. For this reason, at therapeutic doses it is not expected that the lercanidipine inhibits the biotransformation of drugs metabolised by CYP3A4 or CYP2D6.
Elimination occurs essentially by biotransformation.
A mean terminal elimination half-life of 8-10 hours was calculated and, due to the high binding to lipid membranes, the therapeutic activity has a duration of 24 hours. No accumulation was found after repeated administration.
Linearity / non-linearity
Oral administration of lercanidipine leads to plasma levels not directly proportional to dose (non-linear kinetics). After 10, 20, or 40 mg, peak plasma concentrations of 1: 3: 8 and AUC of 1: 4: 18 were observed, indicating progressive saturation of first pass metabolism. Consequently, availability increases with increasing dose.
Additional information on special populations
In elderly patients and in patients with mild to moderate renal or hepatic impairment, the pharmacokinetic behavior of lercanidipine was similar to that observed in the general patient population. Higher levels of the drug (approximately 70%) were found in patients with severe renal insufficiency or in dialysis patients. In patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment, an increase in the systemic bioavailability of lercanidipine is likely as the drug is normally extensively metabolised in the liver.
05.3 Preclinical safety data -
Enalapril / lercanidipine combination
The potential toxicity of the fixed combination enalapril and lercanidipine was studied in rats after oral administration for 3 months and in two genotoxicity tests. The combination did not change the toxicological profile of the individual components.
For the two components (enalapril and lercanidipine), the following data are available.
Non-clinical data showed no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenic potential.
Reproductive toxicity studies indicate that enalapril has no effects on fertility and reproductive performance in rats and has no teratogenic effects. A study in female rats, given doses before mating and during gestation, showed increased mortality of small rats during lactation. The compound crosses the placenta and is excreted in milk. The category of ACE inhibitors has been shown to induce adverse effects on final fetal development, resulting in fetal death and congenital effects, particularly in load of the skull. Cases of fetotoxicity, intrauterine growth retardation and patency of the ductus arteriosus have also been reported. These developmental anomalies are partly attributed to a "direct action of ACE inhibitors on the renin-angiotensin system of the fetus and partly to ischemia due to maternal hypotension, as well as decreases in fetal-placental blood flow and pas oxygen / nutrient test to the fetus.
Non-clinical data showed no particular risk for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, reproductive toxicity.
Animal safety pharmacological studies have shown no effects on the autonomic nervous system, central nervous system or gastrointestinal function at antihypertensive doses.
The important effects observed in long-term studies in rats and dogs were related, directly or indirectly, to the known effects of high doses of calcium channel blockers, which mainly reflect an exaggerated pharmacodynamic activity.
Treatment with lercanidipine did not affect fertility or general reproductive performance in rats, however, when administered at high doses, it induced pre- and post-implantation losses and delayed fetal development. There was no evidence of teratogenesis in rats and rabbits, but other dihydropyridines showed teratogenic effects in animals. When given in high doses (12 mg / kg / day) during labor, lercanidipine induced dystocia.
The distribution of lercanidipine and / or its metabolites in pregnant animals and their excretion into breast milk have not been evaluated.
The metabolites have not been evaluated separately in toxicity studies
06.0 PHARMACEUTICAL INFORMATION -
06.1 Excipients -
sodium carboxymethyl starch type A;
povidone K 30;
sodium hydrogen carbonate;
hypromellose 5 cP;
titanium dioxide (E171);
06.2 Incompatibility "-
06.3 Period of validity "-
06.4 Special precautions for storage -
Store in the original package to keep it away from light and moisture. Do not store above 25 ° C.
06.5 Nature of the immediate packaging and contents of the package -
Polyamide-aluminum-PVC / aluminum blister
Packs of 7, 14, 28, 30, 35, 42, 50, 56, 90, 98 and 100 tablets.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
06.6 Instructions for use and handling -
Unused medicine and waste derived from this medicine must be disposed of in accordance with local regulations.
07.0 HOLDER OF THE "MARKETING AUTHORIZATION" -
RECORDATI Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industries S.p.A. - Via Matteo Civitali 1 - 20148 Milan.
08.0 MARKETING AUTHORIZATION NUMBER -
CORIPREN 10 mg / 10 mg film-coated tablets - 7 tablets AIC n. 038568010
CORIPREN 10 mg / 10 mg film-coated tablets - 14 tablets AIC n. 038568022
CORIPREN 10 mg / 10 mg film-coated tablets - 28 tablets AIC n. 038568034
CORIPREN 10 mg / 10 mg film-coated tablets - 30 tablets AIC n. 038568046
CORIPREN 10 mg / 10 mg film-coated tablets - 35 tablets AIC n. 038568059
CORIPREN 10 mg / 10 mg film-coated tablets - 42 tablets AIC n. 038568061
CORIPREN 10 mg / 10 mg film-coated tablets - 50 tablets AIC n. 038568073
CORIPREN 10 mg / 10 mg film-coated tablets - 56 tablets AIC n. 038568085
CORIPREN 10 mg / 10 mg film-coated tablets - 90 tablets AIC n. 038568097
CORIPREN 10 mg / 10 mg film-coated tablets - 98 tablets AIC n. 038568109
CORIPREN 10 mg / 10 mg film-coated tablets - 100 tablets AIC n. 038568111
09.0 DATE OF FIRST AUTHORIZATION OR RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORIZATION -
First authorization: 12.02.2009
Renewal of the authorization: 26.07.2011
10.0 DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT -
AIFA Determination of 13/09/2016