Competitive fitness for athletes with cardiovascular alterations and pathologies

Classification

For eminently practical criteria and to allow for a correspondence between the substantially innovative classification that is set out below and the terminology previously adopted in the COCIS 1989 protocols, the disciplines described later in group A can be considered indicative of a mild cardiovascular risk, as well as those of group B2; a moderate risk level can be attributed to the disciplines of group B1, while a medium to high risk level can be attributed to the disciplines included in groups C, D and E which however present differences in terms of haemodynamic responses that may be important in specific cardiovascular diseases or anomalies (eg "pressure" sports in the case of arterial hypertension, aortic coarctation, etc.).
These indications, it should be repeated, can be considered in part arbitrary, and in any case subject to possible variations, but must be considered useful for eminently practical reasons.
The classification provides "ancillary" information, consisting of the "addition of a first group (A) which includes non-competitive sports activities and which logically would fall outside the objectives of the COCIS. However, it was deemed necessary to include it in the light of the great development that sports practice has today as a therapeutic-rehabilitative means in many cardiovascular pathologies.

Group A

Non-competitive sports activities with minimal-moderate cardio-circulatory commitment characterized by pumping activity at a constant pace, submaximal frequencies and a fall in peripheral resistance:


Running on the plains Footing Jogging Flatland cycling Hunting Tourist canoe I swim Cross country skiing Skating Trekking (not exasperated) Golf Walk on the plains

Group B.

Sports activities with cardio-circulatory commitment of the "neurogenic" type characterized by increases in heart rate and not in range, due, especially in competitions, to an important emotional impact:


1. with medium to high increases in HR Diving Parachuting Speed ​​Motorcycling Motoring Horse racing Sport Aviation Underwater activities    
2. with minimal to moderate increases in HR Golf Petanque and bowling Sport fishing Bocce and Bowling Shooting sports (target shooting, flying, archery, etc.)

Group C

Sports activities with "pressure" cardio-circulatory commitment, characterized by non-maximal cardiac output, high to maximal heart rate and medium to high peripheral resistance:


Jumps Athletics Speed Weightlifting Throws Bob Fins swimming 50 m ap., 100 m Swimming 50 m Tobogganing Speed ​​ice skating Slalom skiing, downhill,
Km launched Speed ​​roller skating Motocross Mountaineering Free climbing Decathlon throws and jumps Acrobatic skiing Water ski Heptathlon throws and jumps Body Building Motorcycling Wind surf table tennis, Synchronized swimming Speed ​​cycling and keirin

Group D

Sports activities with medium to high cardiovascular commitment characterized by numerous and rapid increases, including maximal ones, in heart rate and range, with an increase in peripheral resistance particularly evident in the abrupt interruptions of the muscular activity of the limbs:


Football Basketball Tennis Five-a-side football Volleyball Canoe slalom American Football Handball Canoe polo Rugby Water polo Squash Badminton Tambourine Martial arts Artistic gymnastics Struggle Baseball Figure skating Softball Cricket Ice Hockey Beach volley Fencing Roller hockey Field hockey Boxing

Group E

Sports activities with high cardio-circulatory commitment characterized by pumping activity with heart rate and central and peripheral flow rate maximal (conditioned in duration by the limits of metabolic adaptations):

Atl. Light: 400m, 400m hurdles, 800m, 1500m, 3000m steeplechase, 5000m, 10,000m, marathon, 20km and 50km walk

Canoe: 500m, 1000m, 10000m, marathon - all boats

Rowing: all boats

Cycling: individual and team pursuit, points race, standing km, line, individual time trial, mountain bike (cross country and downhill) and cyclocross

Decathlon: just running

Heptathlon: just running

Swimming: 100m, 200m, 400m, 800m, 1500m, marathon

Fins swimming: 400m and 800m sub-200m, 400m, 800m and 1500m sup.

Ice skating: 500m, 1500m, 3000m, 5000m, 10000m

Roller skating: 500m, 1000m, 3000m, 5000m, 10000m, 20000m

Pentathlon: running and swimming

Alpine skiing: giant slalom - super G Nordic skiing: 15 km, 30 km, 50 km Biathlon (ski-shooting)

Classic triathlon

Bibliography


BROUSTET J.P .: Contreindications cardiologiques à la pratique sportive chez l "enfant et!" Adulte, Masson, Paris, 1978.
CLAUSEN J.P .: Circulatory adjustement to dynamic exercise and effect of physical training in normal subjects and in patients with coronary artery disease, Progress Cardiovasc. Dis., 18,459-495, 1976.
DETRY J.M .: Le comportement cardiovasculaire à l "effort du coronarien, in J.P. Broustet: Cardiologie sportive, Masson, Paris, 1978.
GAMBELLI, BOCCANELLI: Mono and bidimensional echocardiography, Il Pensiero Scientifico, Rome, 1984. HURST J.W .: The Heart, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984.
POLLOCK M.L., SCHMIDT D.H .: Heart disease and rehabilitation, H. Miffling Professional Publ., Boston, 1979.
VENERANDO, ZEPPILLI: Cardiology of Sport, Masson, Italy, Milan, 1982.
VARIOUS AUTHORS: Cardiological protocols for the judgment of suitability for competitive sport 1995 - C.E.S.I.
GRIBAUDO-GANZIT: Sports medicine, ISEF collection, UTET, 1988.
P. ZEPPILLI: Cardiology of sport, third edition, C.E.S.I.
CARÙ-PALMIERO: Cardiological problems of sport in the elderly, C.E.S.I., 2000
GERMAN, STANFIELD: Human Physiology, Edises 2002


Curated by: Lorenzo Boscariol


Other articles on "Cardiovascular Effort - Sports Activities"

  1. cardiovascular sports commitment
  2. cardiovascular system
  3. athlete's heart
  4. cardiological examinations
  5. cardiovascular pathologies
  6. cardiovascular pathologies 2
  7. cardiovascular pathologies 3
  8. cardiovascular pathologies 4
  9. electrocardiographic abnormalities
  10. electrocardiographic abnormalities 2
  11. electrocardiographic abnormalities 3
  12. ischemic heart disease
  13. screening of the elderly
  14. competitive fitness
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