Competitive fitness for athletes with cardiovascular alterations and pathologies
For eminently practical criteria and to allow for a correspondence between the substantially innovative classification that is set out below and the terminology previously adopted in the COCIS 1989 protocols, the disciplines described later in group A can be considered indicative of a mild cardiovascular risk, as well as those of group B2; a moderate risk level can be attributed to the disciplines of group B1, while a medium to high risk level can be attributed to the disciplines included in groups C, D and E which however present differences in terms of haemodynamic responses that may be important in specific cardiovascular diseases or anomalies (eg "pressure" sports in the case of arterial hypertension, aortic coarctation, etc.).
These indications, it should be repeated, can be considered in part arbitrary, and in any case subject to possible variations, but must be considered useful for eminently practical reasons.
The classification provides "ancillary" information, consisting of the "addition of a first group (A) which includes non-competitive sports activities and which logically would fall outside the objectives of the COCIS. However, it was deemed necessary to include it in the light of the great development that sports practice has today as a therapeutic-rehabilitative means in many cardiovascular pathologies.
Non-competitive sports activities with minimal-moderate cardio-circulatory commitment characterized by pumping activity at a constant pace, submaximal frequencies and a fall in peripheral resistance:
Sports activities with cardio-circulatory commitment of the "neurogenic" type characterized by increases in heart rate and not in range, due, especially in competitions, to an important emotional impact:
Sports activities with "pressure" cardio-circulatory commitment, characterized by non-maximal cardiac output, high to maximal heart rate and medium to high peripheral resistance:
Sports activities with medium to high cardiovascular commitment characterized by numerous and rapid increases, including maximal ones, in heart rate and range, with an increase in peripheral resistance particularly evident in the abrupt interruptions of the muscular activity of the limbs:
Sports activities with high cardio-circulatory commitment characterized by pumping activity with heart rate and central and peripheral flow rate maximal (conditioned in duration by the limits of metabolic adaptations):
Atl. Light: 400m, 400m hurdles, 800m, 1500m, 3000m steeplechase, 5000m, 10,000m, marathon, 20km and 50km walk
Canoe: 500m, 1000m, 10000m, marathon - all boats
Rowing: all boats
Cycling: individual and team pursuit, points race, standing km, line, individual time trial, mountain bike (cross country and downhill) and cyclocross
Decathlon: just running
Heptathlon: just running
Swimming: 100m, 200m, 400m, 800m, 1500m, marathon
Fins swimming: 400m and 800m sub-200m, 400m, 800m and 1500m sup.
Ice skating: 500m, 1500m, 3000m, 5000m, 10000m
Roller skating: 500m, 1000m, 3000m, 5000m, 10000m, 20000m
Pentathlon: running and swimming
Alpine skiing: giant slalom - super G Nordic skiing: 15 km, 30 km, 50 km Biathlon (ski-shooting)
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POLLOCK M.L., SCHMIDT D.H .: Heart disease and rehabilitation, H. Miffling Professional Publ., Boston, 1979.
VENERANDO, ZEPPILLI: Cardiology of Sport, Masson, Italy, Milan, 1982.
VARIOUS AUTHORS: Cardiological protocols for the judgment of suitability for competitive sport 1995 - C.E.S.I.
GRIBAUDO-GANZIT: Sports medicine, ISEF collection, UTET, 1988.
P. ZEPPILLI: Cardiology of sport, third edition, C.E.S.I.
CARÙ-PALMIERO: Cardiological problems of sport in the elderly, C.E.S.I., 2000
GERMAN, STANFIELD: Human Physiology, Edises 2002
Curated by: Lorenzo Boscariol
Other articles on "Cardiovascular Effort - Sports Activities"
- cardiovascular sports commitment
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- cardiological examinations
- cardiovascular pathologies
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- cardiovascular pathologies 4
- electrocardiographic abnormalities
- electrocardiographic abnormalities 2
- electrocardiographic abnormalities 3
- ischemic heart disease
- screening of the elderly
- competitive fitness