Medicines to Treat Hypotension

Definition

The term "hypotension" is synonymous with "low blood pressure": it is a condition in which arterial blood pressure values ​​fall below 90 mmHg (for systolic) and 60 mmHg (for diastolic). Although its dangerousness cannot be compared to that of hypertension, hypotension can also cause more or less serious symptoms, such as general malaise, fatigue and dizziness.

Causes

Hypotension can be the consequence of one or more factors: drug abuse (diuretics, anti-parkinson, tricyclics, viagra), endocrine alterations (hypo / hyperthyroidism, Addison's disease, hypoglycemia, diabetes), anaphylaxis, anemia, diet deficient in vitamin B12 and folic acid, dehydration, pregnancy (the circulatory system expands, so the pressure decreases), cardiac dysfunctions (bradycardia, heart failure, heart attack), haemorrhages, septicemia, hypovolemic shock.

Symptoms

Hypotension can be recognized by looking at a set of symptoms: anxiety, increased sweating, headache, thought disturbances, pain in the shoulders, neck, chest, back, irritability, blurred vision, fainting, urinating less than before. normality, dizziness.

Diet

The information on Hypotension - Medicines to Treat Hypotension is not intended to replace the direct relationship between health professional and patient. Always consult your doctor and / or specialist before taking Hypotension - Medicines to Treat Hypotension.

Medicines

Although hypotension, as mentioned, is less serious than the opposite condition (hypertension), it is necessary to report the symptoms to your doctor as soon as possible, to avoid complications such as frequent fainting and dizziness. However, in general, it is It is possible to consider hypotension as a positive condition, since it can prevent some cardiovascular diseases.
In "non-pathological hypotension - which occurs in the absence of underlying diseases - the body ensures an adequate blood supply, and is able to avoid fainting; in this case, the use of drugs is not recommended, as well as the implementation of some medical treatments.
Since hypotension records a peak of "sick" during the summer, it is understandable that an adequate water and salt intake in the diet is essential.

 

Useful tips to prevent and treat hypotension:

  • wearing elastic graduated stockings, especially in the case of varicose veins in the context of hypotension, useful for avoiding the stagnation of blood in the legs: this promotes the return of blood to the heart, increasing blood pressure
  • avoid dehydration
  • possibly take intravenous fluids

 

The following are the classes of drugs most used in the therapy against hypotension, and some examples of pharmacological specialties; it is up to the doctor to choose the most suitable active ingredient and dosage for the patient, based on the severity of the disease, the state of health of the patient and his response to treatment:

 

In cases of pathological hypotension, it is sometimes necessary to take drugs to increase blood pressure values:

 

Erythropoietin: the drug favors the increase of erythrocytes in the blood: the increase in red blood cells not only causes an increase in blood pressure, but is also indicated for the treatment of anemia, which is often related to hypotension.

  • Epoetin (eg. Eprex Alfa, Neo-Recormon, Binocrit, Abseamed): it is a recombinant human erythropoietin, used in the treatment of erythropoietin deficiency anemia, also in the context of hypotension. The dosage and method of administration are of medical competence.

Steroids: the administration of steroids is indicated for the prevention of the loss of mineral salts from the body. Steroids are useful for increasing blood pressure.

  • Fludrocortisone (eg. Florinef): it is a synthetic mineralocorticoid drug, used in therapy both for the treatment of Addison's disease and to increase blood pressure in the context of pathological hypotension. Even if the dosage must be carefully established by the doctor, indicatively, he plans to take a dose of the drug ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 mg, orally, every 24 hours.

Vasopressors: by promoting vasoconstriction, vasopressor drugs increase blood pressure values. In addition, these drugs increase blood flow to the brain and help reduce the symptoms of hypotension.

  • Midodrine (eg Gutron): indicatively, it is recommended to take 10 mg of active by mouth, three times a day. The doses should not be taken within three hours of each other. Alternatively, the drug can be taken in a single 20 mg dose, per os: the posology is indicated for the treatment of hypotension in healthy adults. The dose can increase up to 30 mg per day. Consult your doctor.
  • Norepinephrine or noradrenaline (eg Noradr Con FN): this is a catecholamine indicated to increase blood pressure in the context of hypotension. It is recommended to start therapy with 2-4 mcg of drug per minute. The maintenance dose should be established. by the doctor based on the severity of the condition and the patient's response to treatment; although, in general, this dose ranges from 1 to 12 mcg per minute.
  • Phenylephrine (eg. Isonephrine, Fenil CL DYN, Triaminic FLU, Nasomixin CM) the drug belongs to the pharmacological class of sympathomimetics (Alpha-adrenergic agonists): the administration of these drugs induces an increase in blood pressure values, decreasing the accompanying symptoms hypotension. Taken subcutaneously or intramuscularly, the drug is usually prescribed at a dose of 2-5 mg, every 1-2 hours, as needed. It is also possible to take the drug as an intravenous bolus: 0.2 mg every 10- 15 minutes, as needed. For intravenous infusion, initiate anti-hypotensive therapy at a dose of 100-180 mcg per minute. The maintenance dose can range from 40 to 60 mcg per minute. Alternatively, take 0.5 mcg / kg per minute Consult your doctor.
  • Ethylephrine (eg Effortil): the drug is available in the form of drops (each gram of product corresponds to 15 drops, and is equivalent to 7.5 mg of active ingredient), 5 mg tablets, 25 mg capsules or solution for injection ( 10 mg) and is used in therapy for the treatment of orthostatic hypotension. Indicatively, it is possible to take 5-10 drops, 3 times a day; or 2 capsules a day; alternatively, one tablet, three times a day; or 1 subcutaneous / intramuscular / intravenous vial, every 2 hours Consult your doctor.

Antidiuretic hormone: Since hypotension can create nocturia, administration of antidiuretic hormone may decrease the need to urinate during the night's rest.

  • Vasopressin (eg Pitressin): the drug is not on the market in Italy due to its rather serious side effects.
  • Desmopressin (eg. Minirin / Ddvap): it is an analogue of vasopressin, capable of carrying out the same therapeutic activities but with a longer duration of action and with fewer side effects. Indicatively, take 0.2-0.6 mg of active, once a day, at bedtime.

Anti-parkinson drugs: this category of drugs promotes an increase in blood pressure and decreases symptoms related to pathological hypotension. The choice of one drug over another depends on the severity of the hypotension.



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